Vol. III. No. 1

and edited by Museum Director



by Frederic Wood Jones, D.Sc.


The beautiful jumping mice which inhabit the vast open spaces of Australia are such peculiarly Australian types that it is rather remarkable that they have received so little attention from Australian zoologists.

Of the ten species and sub-species so far recognized, one was described by W. Ogilby (1838), three by Gould (1844, 1851, and 1863), and six by Thomas (1921, 1922).



THU tn'illll ll'lll j U 1 1 1 p i ! I Li mire whii'li inll.'ihil lhe V;isl Open slices of Australia ai*lJ surli prnilinrly Ansl catian types thai L1 is rather »-imh;» rk;i]>l<- lha! limy have received so Httlo attention from Au-lralian /"nlnuii-ls.

Of llic Len ftpft+ip& ami suh-speeies so t&V reru^ni/en1 . Olie was (lotiCribed hj w. Ogjltty l^'isi. ihror by Gould (1W4i lsr>1- find 1868), flwfcl six by Tbojnas I 1921, 1922),

Thr dislinelion of these jumping mire is in llmir adaptive! modifications to ;i saltatory 1 1 1 m 1 nj' progression ; I hoy haw become adapted ty|o)fg lifiw similar to ihovr whit'Ji havp moulded their marsupial eoiupanion Antrohinofiiijs, and similar tjfj I'hGfte, that llftVe resulted in 1 1 m < I * \ < - 1 < » 1 1 1 1 i * * 1 1 1 of the h?UC Jerboas

(DipnHtMi ) of the Palaearetie and Ethiopian regions.

The Ansl ralian jnnipiiiLi- miri' wnv lor long iimlmlrd wilh oihor sprrialize<l rodents, whieh, howe\m\ sbfowed no saltfltorj modjfteatians, in Lirlilriistrin 's LM-iiii^ fftipatol is [1829). This iianic, being preoccupied, was superseded by Cmihtrm w. Ogttb-y CJ8S8

11 is ;i rurious fart that, tllQTigh saltatory ami normal forms \\>-v I'OlitaifcPC] m ihis larov ^vmis. the mm-saltatory animals were all named JerboH liats or Jorbftfl Ali'-o. Tim type of the uviiiis was ('. nfbipi v. aiJ animal showiue; normal

proportions of i in- limbs, -nut it is remarkable that, although this and many other

uon-sallatnry mis wore [?oht&ilk!f] in I ho 'jciiih. an elomjal ion of Ihr himl liml)

was defined as one oi the generic characters, It was ma until 1S9S thai Waite rescued (he true saltatory Jerboa mire from ilio mixed a^emblage ot* normally proportioned murines contained in ihr gpuiw Vonilifwut. Although rocorreel

treimralizatinns had been previously made roueernino; the elongated bind lunli. Waile was ihr lir^i l<> i-rc..o'iii/o thai, in ilm high Npreialixal ion of thf « I < > m :_i ; < 1 < * < I tnni. ihr i nil* Jerboa iniee showed themselves to be a cjrstiiiei ami well defined group.

To Ihis Lir«.i!j. with ilm modified feet he gave 1ho name of Poda/tWIttfll "v

I I8FF8)3 I In- type Df whii-h \\;r- /'. hnurcoinlttt iis. Inil, sincr l.c-^uii Innl ;i I »-«;m I \

(jfi41 i 'j/ivn 1 1 1 . nanj'1 \ofotntis in iin> firsi recogniKed Ansii^ilian Jerboa mnnae

< \. iHifrlnlli ./, ihis nnmr h;is |»r*n>ril \- oVei1 W;iito's ;jppi-opr*ni1 o designation In I lie Mini' paper of 189R, Wailr tlreVI attention to 'h'1 miliar pnin-h po>sr».r(| he


j Records of tuf s.a. iuiskum

Hit Fawn-coloured Jerboa mouse, and he proposed for lliis species a new gtfu>no

title, 'llmldCinnijs, hut lindine; I hat I his name might titi ill jeopardy, owing tO

i»i ■r.MM-upitiioii, be replaced ii in 1&00 by AHCdphtifynjf7 vvith -4. vrmnis as Hie

type of 1 he jrouiis,

Fn L90B Oldfield Thomas wrote: l*I am nol at present prepared to consider i|s possession of a glllflr ponch as a eharaetcr of generic importance, and shoidd therefore place Axc///>lhtrun.r as a synonym of \nln,nfjs."

[Tntil 1lie present 1 1 n i # cn'mnis has remained alone as a derhoa mouse in whirh a jiolar pnneh has hecn deserihed ; and ii is much to bfl re^'relted lliat in no recent description of a new species is any attention giVOH lo this point, Tim discovery of another w ell -defined species possessing a irnhir ponch, eomhined with the niter lack of any snidest ion of a ponch in llie N*ttiaitril1g Jpl'bon UUCP of wliich I have made a thorough examination, considerably sl?vn«rl Imns Waile 's t » I > 1 1 ) m » m ol' llh- L! t * t n r i<- distinction nf ihc pouched forms. I have, fheret'ore, followed Waile in separating cfrriiiiis and ils new ;dly 1'roni those derhoa m "n in which we know. From repealed e\aminat ions of recent specimens, lhat no ponch exists. The detection of a nnv pouched form wi1h a specialization of fool si n.iei nre made ii im])er;i1 ive to ascertain if, whal may he icrnn-d the original Jerboa mouse (mitchdll) was pouched ov pom-ldess. At my request Mr. E. I,.- Q. Trouirhlon Wry kindly examined the I wo lype specimens of nnh-hrlli in the Australian Museum. Sydney. and aJtllQUgll the Condition of llie specimens is not ideal, he reporled coiiccrniim' the pnnch : "I feel reasonahly sure that llie character is nol present in tin- 1 wo milflnlh."

As Waile stiLi'Mvsled in IS'JS. niilrhilli , t herefore. allies itself wilh hnu/i- CfltfdfltUS,

We mi;i\ then feci some assurance in ill" \\i mieile l;i 1 11 IV nf tile \\\<^ p.»ll<dlh->s

forms with which we are familiar, of which ahnndant and satisfactory material lias hecn examined, and of which adequate descriptions have hecn pnhlished. All measurements in millimetres.


This well-defined species has hecn adequately redescribed by Waile (1808). \o specimens examined by present writer. Us essenl ial characlei's are as follows:

Colour. Sandy ahove, with some dark' hairs admixed; while helow

(,'ulor />t"trh. Ahscnt

f'is. Leii^lh. cite. 48 mm. Hallm-al pad presenl.

Tail* To 100 mm.

Shlll Basal leneth 38 mm.

f'/jfx r nlolar st rii s. Q"5 mm

Wooo Jones Sci'tii Australian Jekijoa Mia 3

NOTOMYS MITCHELLI Ogilby, 1838. Numerous spoeinmns, including; one from type locality^ examined by p'resenl


Colour, (iri/xh'd isabelline brown above, while below, hairs dark Smoky ;il I) use.

a ii hi r pouch. Absent,

/V.s\ Length, arc. Sfi linn. In snb-speeies uiucrofius 3() mm. I lallneal pad


Tail. To 1.").") mm.

S/.hII. liasal Length, 27-30 nun.

UppW aiolar st rl( $. o mm.

Of lln' pouched forms there are also two well-dpfincd speeies present in ihe f;inn;i of I liis Slate.


This (lislincl speeies redeseribed by Waite (1898), Numerous specimens examined by pYescsztf writer.

Colour. Pale sandy, wiih occasional dark tipped hairs on (tarsal surface, Ventral surface while hairs while to their mots.

(hilar poiK-h. Present in holh sexes.

/Vs. Leiiuih, 8 I nun. Ilalhieal pad present.

Toil, To 1 55 mm

s/.iill. Basal hmuih, 26-28 mm.

/ ' t>/>< r molar scries. 5 Mini.


Characters may I"1 epitomized as follows:

Colour. lvfither drab and uniform isabelline liuhl hrown above. Helow

white; the hairs pale smoky a1 the bases.

(iular patch, Present in both sexes.

/V.s. Length, circ, 33 mm. ll;illne;il pad absent.

Tail To 135 mm.

skull . Banal Lt*ng1 h, 27 mm.

I ppi r molar scm s. o mm.

Extended description.

rrii is little jumping mon^e. which is readily distinguished from ils allies by its external eharaelers, has previously been eoiifnsed with llie ol her Jerboa miee

I ki ■■< oft ns O'j nil'" S A- Mim i \!

in rnmp;iny il Impprns h> l)r livini:' in ; m i s <•!' tin- «li^1 ri«*l s (if ihr }\\0rt fcfM purls of 1 ho ( Vnlrr

hi ili'si-i'ibiMLi' A, c ri'iutis-, Gould nirnliinis ;i d;irkrr form is ROttlftittW

nn-1 wild, iiiul Im' l'n>nrrs, in a ru 1 Imm* nnronvinr imj nnintn-r, Ihis djirln-r form in

llir lnirkliTOllIld n\' his phlfr < |r| »ji*| i Ug I ||r [ft] \V II -rn|< >1 I IVi | JrHiOJI AlollSr Wlllh ,

wIhii rxmiunintr I hr --prriinrns of Jrrhiwi niirr prneruvd by iht' Horn K\prdifion. llOlidxl lh«i1 jiiihhi»' Ihr sprrinirns oli1;iinnl from Uharlottc1 \Y;iI<t- >iml Alirr Sprint's NtfW wrrr sonic specimens which. IlKHlgll [MSM'SKing H (rular pooch, differ. *d IVum I. <'*irnnis in |>otnp wf N tltirlwr eoltHIE.

Of I his 1 \ pr he wrolr : " A < I;j r U i r form \\;\< considered lo he ;i seen ml Rppciftt rtf tin' »vmis i < Ascti/fhfn'jt/i.i ) nnlil ;i mnip.-i r;il i \ e ••Xiiiiiiini! inn (>f lie- skulls -dewed il lo l»r s|H'rifii\'ill\ 1. 1. 'in n-;d. Tin- f.iw U-l'olfHlfCKl poll inns ;nv rrphmcd l.\ ;i miirh <h'rprr I in1 . ;iml ihr ftjf ol tllfl nndcrpnrls is «j.rcy ;n iIm1 hnsr." lie Jilsn st ;d i'< I 1|i;i( "In colour il resemhlcs A', milrln ///'.' '

In iiuliiiir I he diffcreiirr in [hi1 UPloilU ftf ihr Imsr of tin* vrnlnd while Iniii^. WrtU-0 reeoLMii/.'-d one of Kfto specific cli;ir;jclcrs of Ai Ihschs.

In fcj'paralmg the mcmiiers of 1 h * olii gcmns CoHUurU* into fhtw with

Ni;|l fori atlti those Willi v|n '■• i;i I I /r< \ fort. \\';\\\r Holed lh;il of \\\Q Sl\ p;ids

present in nonm-il murines "two or more ;nv nl.seiil M in lhe Jcrhoji mice, As \YV h;nc seen, I wo ;irc iihscnl in .-ill I In- forms piv\ i « h i ^ I \ jh'stM'iln'il : ihr onk mrmher. wlllrh ll.'ls hrrli ;ii|«k«|inilrly desrrihrd l|p to llm present fillie. [i»YUlg MM »li ' llwill

I wo nbscnl is A . fnsct/s.

Tin- Faci Hi.' ho called u4arh fiyrm'"* of -4. Mrvtou* hflA a diffcr^Pl in"

<»!' -Mtln p;nls. jis w.'ll ;is ;i .lilV.nvnl eh;) r;ic1 rr t.l' .<u;ii i-oh.nrnl ion. o'ivrs il I hr riuhl lo spnrilic r;ink": ;iml I he nninnil is Imrr iuiiihn I AscnphariiH.f j'uscus. 1 1 iii;i\ In- s;ii<l <it miiM- fluil. in ;ill. sunn- im kpccii^h oi -Irrhn.-j mire of I he g^R?*ril A (fhmifis ; i » i r I A .sro/tlhini n.r lni\T hni'ji (Ii's.'i-'iImmL I)1'j1 lln- (h'script ions of mosl ol' lln-sr spr.-i.'s •ic- j^Q insliHiririll ||i;M il is i III pOflfcl 1 1 1»« I" - l«'l 'Till i llr if llir prr^ml

fttrin h;is hnnn previously n;imr<l h\ ;inihoi's who hnw iin^hM-trd drlnils .,)'

si rilcl lire llrrrss^ll'V t0V tllC1 | >»'<>[ H' I' t|C»1 rrm i H;i I ion 1 1 f I llr ^pr.-irs of this jjvnits.

This spneins. whh-h r^srinl .|.-s 1, ,-<yr<,nis in poss.-ssiinj ;i ji'iihil' flOllVll mi Ih.iIi sr\is, rlil'fn-s I'min fhrtl spam's \\\ gpwv\\\ nolonr^ilion riinl in ihr rnlnnr \\\ Ihr individniil Iniirs, us wnll ;is in tin- I*;jc1 lh;il I In- IV. ol , which is considrnihlN lno;nln*, Inis no pud Bl thr h;)sr n\' iln« (icsl oliirit.

'The iii'inn-nl ml.nir ol* Ihr hrnil Jind dors;il slirflKT Of A\r hody i> li^ln isjihrllin,' hrown, laekllig iilioiii-lln-r ih.-il yolloWJIIW \\hi'*h rPJfillov .1. frtrtinis f;iwn rolonrt'd. \ol only Is thr sh.'idr of yrllow ,'ihsrnl. hill 1lir wlnh- '-ulmn;il imi is ronsidn-;ihly ih-irkrj- aild niorr druh. In -vn«-r;il fm-ni il n-M -nil. Irs . I . ri,r>» \ln \rv\ <*losrly. ;md ils nir;isni*rinrnl s do nol dil'l'rr in ;iny <'onsl;in1 dir-rlion from I hosr of 1 1nil sprrirs.

rl'hr illtliVilUUll h.'MI's of 1 1 1 1 dors;il snrf.-irr ;irr smoky ;i1 ihr liiisr, |»|-u\\ n \\\ [flJ "r<';il''i- poi-liim oflhrir fir-fh ihr lip l.<iir- «.nl\' Jr/lilly diirlo-r limn Ihr

\\V>oi. J.-Ni- Sdini \ihk\i.ian |i:ui;n\ Mni 3

sli^l'is. The .•'•nir;jsi in'hnrn i im cokMV of the sliiifl and thu lip uf rtt* hlito oj

ihr dorsal slirfarr is Itul SO lIMilWl lis ill t. r/T/'/ H Hs. ill." wholr ptlagtf being WW

Mni i'ot-ni dull i.rowu and uty w deftfciWIy Becked with dark tippet] hab'H ft1 Ui« hi, ,drr nni of ihr hud>. At ilm sidr> of the body Mi*1 daite lip* of Hi" bsira rJinuppeftr altogether, and ttw feowji pf Lfae dorsal enirfwe m<*t^s somfrwhal

HfudllAU) lnt(J the Whit* -I ihr vniiral snrlarr. Tim fliUJe is uniformly rolnnn',1 Mm sanm llghl hrown as oharnrl rrizrs ihr h^acl ami dorsal sntfttue. Thr trtltOV

,i,jr ii,,. Mmi.s rather brighten: brtmi) than ilm dorsnl tmp&tte. lime* Kid en ol

Urn liuihs and Ihr wholr of 1 ho vniiral Mirfarr white, but "' ilfetinvl-iWl r,,,>m 1. It ,,'nnis, lli.- whit.- hairs uf ill,- vmilral gttrfgtit1 arc pair smoky al ihi'ir baaSOH Hlld nul pur.' wliilr in lim uliuh- uf ihrir PXtetlt as limy ar«- in lhal HjWatiH.

Thr rliiiiiiriiiiu is dusky pink, ami is noi so pnuuiimnl ur liuokittj tol H is in 1. rtrri/uts. Thr vihrissar arr long ami. savr fur n 1V\\ ol Hit* Kfaorl anlrriur mrhilM-is. which arr white thromjjhoiil , arr dark hrmui ;il Ihr base gold vfhMii Ml Mir lip-: I li^ h.ii'jvsl mraMirrs 52 mm.

Thr ruvs arr iuim\ ihiii. ami mrmhranuiis. bill arr dusky in ffoloitl' 1 hrumjhonl. ;l |Vw |j<r|,i hnovn hairs rlulhiim Mm haw without ''"hI b^ilig ^parsr|\ M-;i!lcr-.l PVIT thr s,irfar<- uf Ihr auri.-lr. Mmnis and prs whip-, ihr so|r> iinnr dusky in rohnir than llmsr of A. rt minis

Thr |h-s iv miu-r rolntSl thai] llial of 4k cfrrnii's. it.H Invadlh across thy has,- ,M ihr rhrrr middlr digit* avrraj/m^ ti mm., in>lrad of 4m mm. in tlm lallrr -prrirs. Thr p;i«ls u f I hr sulrs am rolislanllv iiMlnrril Pi ihrrr. 1 ) i«- pad a I llir li;i ■-.• Of diLiil 1 hrin^ upnti uiirrpn-srnt rd.

rfhr lail k 1mm. ruiisidrrahly rxrrrdini: the Umgtll «»!' head ;ind hody. Il is ,-|.,ilird will) shorl brown hairs Oil itH dm-sal snrfarr and wrll prir-illr,! ;tl ihr ru,| vi'l£h a In ft of hnovn hairs: hrh.w . the haii-s ;nv white, a small purl ion of I Ii. vrnlral siirfarr uf ih<- Pn-ininal pencil beillg n>inpu>rd uf whilr hair>. Tin- sralr rp\VM a\rra^r fonrlrrn |;n ihr r<-nl imri \-(\

The* Ji'islar ponrh pKOsdlll m hulh s«-\-\ and differ >>l llu W-W ProTU lhal uf , I . i-rrrnnis.

Thr ni|)plrs ;irr fuiir in nnmhrr and libdruuiliO imjii inal in [JDMtioii.


Sri n \ii:n

H riaiM


i i i \





1 lr;ri ,md hudy





Khinarinm 1u car. .









1 v>




32 a






Tlir fililS '»!' t-hUBC sfM'c'mn'ns , m ( ,i-r1'rct .

6 Red >ki>:. op the s.a. ntusei m

Tim skull differs from ihal of A* <-<rmn<s in possessing palalal foramina Width (In not extend backwards pasl Hi,' anterior edge of the lirs! 1 1 1 < > I .- 1 1 tooth, and in I In1 form of the nmsial pterygoid processes, which are curved outwanls ;il their posterior e\l remit ies. instead of being prael ically straight

Dimensions of Skull.

Ai>ri/r ,: prom ( Nu.Di.A.

<Hvnfrsi length . . . . . . . . 30

Uasal Length . . . . . . . . . . 27

Zygomatic hv<&L&i b . . . . . . . lfl

Iiih'1-ni-hii.'il Koiistrictibri . . . . . . 5-5

Nasals I. "iiml! in

Mate tongtb 13

l 'pper molar scries . t . . . . . . 7)

This Jerboa mouse is nut uiienmmnii about Oolciea* W'bfeliue I have received numerous speeimens iVnm Mr. A. (i. Bola#l« Although al Charlotte W'alers and Alice Springs il was found living in company with .1. crrriims, wit h which KpetsfeS il ims, as we have atfcn, lmen previously tfoilf lltted ; at Oohlea it lives in -•Min|)aiiy with Xolomi/s HiUclulli, ami there is confounded wilh that species.

Although in giving br&f summaries of Hi*' eharaelers of the previously deseribed speeies nl' Jerboa mice, measuremen Is of fool dtlcl tail and skull have been employed, il must be remembered thai the diagnosis is no1 made solely un the measurements. There has been a tendency In over estimale 1 lie importaliee (rf mere size in cletertftiwillg Hie specific characters of members of these ucnora. Sn niiieh is Ihis tlie case ihal no proper ruin paritfUl ma\ lie made bet-Ween my sperms .1. fiiscus and tlie published descriptions ,,|' some Of lh<' other recently described specie-. All Australian zoologists will realize thai no sysi.-m of Measurement .dune ean ever determine ihe specific idenlilx of mamimiJs inhabiting the arid Outre. Their adiiH si/.e depends upon ihe nature of I In* seasons in whieli their span of life is passed. As Sir llaldwiu Spencer noled, in the Zoology of llm Horn Expedition, animals living during a su<?pe*$f>toi} at good reasons ;av larger thiin those whj.eli have li'rown durimj' a successive series of had seasons. One oL* the mosl remarkahle instances of Hiis is that of &U$ljCi rats rrisf iraiidn, whieh.

in the second g#m*ration br«cl in captivity, e&eeed* its wild ancestors very

remarkably in size. The same factor must lie considered whm dealing with Ihe Jerboa mice, as the following measurements of a series of A. iHitcketli will show:

Wood Jonks -South Australian Jekboa Mice

i'(lll.-|!t- S|H'fillHMl

Average of fi s i- Maximum bred in eaptivity

wild eaughl measurements ftOta u ild c;in^lit

s|K'ciin<.'ii.s from of w i Id eaug'Ul parents from

<)old..-;t. sprciniciis. Onldcn.

Head and body . .. 12] 125 132

l\ hi lui riii ii i 1<» c'li' .. .. .'11-4 32 •">-

E;.r m 26 26

Pes 3(i-8 asr-a 39

T;.il 1-17 155 150

This incrcMsc nl' size applies In the skull, Ms well Ms to the externa] incMsureincnls.

Greatesi length

BasaJ Length

Zygomatic breach h . .

1 literorbihil roiisl i i < 1 ion

XmsmIs Length

Palate length

I 'ppcr niohir scries

It will !><• not ice* I thai in this general eiihiriremeiil of the skull the teeth Uikc

Ho |IMI'I. Tile sMIlie I'mcI holds -nod willl oilier Ml II 1*1 IK'S, sillcc the sklllls f)f fulfill*

iniirniifi kept in conlinenicnl fthow m considerable. incrcMsc in size, hu1 I he y^ry

small teeth, diagnostic of the species, remain unaltered. Ii is ho be hoped thai

Ausl i'mMmu workers will nuike m closer study of I he Jerboa mice hd'ore i1 is tQO late, Mini lluit good general descriptions, instead of m few liicMsuremeuls, may he fori I n < * 1 1 1 i 1 1 «_»" of fill species mI present existing".

Wiiitr. (1) Troc. Roy.. Soc. Vicl., 1898 'new' scries), x, pi. ii, p. 117, pi, v, vi,

(2) Ann. Mag. XmI. Hist., ser. 7, ii, 1898, p. 10& (3) Aim. ,Um<t. XmI. llisl.,

set- 7, v, 1900j p. 222, Oldtield ThoinMs. (1) Ann. Mag. XmI. llisl., ser. 7, xvii. CS06, p. 82. (2) Ann.

Mag. Xm1. llisl., ser. D, viii, 1«)lM, p. S3B. (3") Ann. Mm-. XmI. llisl., ser, !».

ix, 1!)22, i). 315,

Wild eaughl Specimen.


|MM'iini-ii i . a i nl

in r;i | lit i\ it ) .






. i


lo •;,


15 o





by Frederic Wood Jones, D.Sc.


The Otarid seals that inhabit the Australian coasts have been subject to much confusion in literature. There are several reasons for this, among wihich the following are the most important: the rather vague descriptions given by the early navigators; the hasty diagnosis of specific and generic characters on insufficient material, notably by Gray; the local use and frequent misuse of the terms Fur Seal and Hair Seal, Sea Lion and Sea Bear; the great changes which age, sex, and wetness or dryness effect in the appearance of a seal. The present paper applies particularly to the seals of South Australia, where the author has alone made first-hand observations.


IJv FkKDKRIC WOOD J()\I\S, l).s, .

Tiik Olarid seals thai inh.'il'it fie Australian ena-K have be^H Kubj^Cl t«> mu-'li mnl'MsioU III ]ilerallire, Tliri-r ;lfr wmil reasons for lllis. n I ) M ) M ti wllieh lie- follow intr HW 'he TOOK! important: tin- rather V^HgFie deseri pi inns (flVOU by ll" early navigator-: Hie Irnsiy diagnosis pf Kpeelflti ftfttl gerijM^iC ehaniriers on Misiifli.-irit! material, notably by <ira\ : this lo&ftl nse and h&Qilgnl misuse of the term- Knr Seal find Hair Seal. Sea Lion and Sea Hear: tllC ^'',,,Jl1 rfWAp* whrm

ajje, sex, and wattless or dryness ulfeci in the appearam-e i;d! a seal. The present

I . ; 1 1 > < I - applies parlienlarlv In the seals of Smith Australia, when- tie- author has olOlie made 1ir<1 hand observation**,

Sealing as an 0¥g*UH2ed iudasti'y has ct»8£ecl bo exisi in Smith Ansi ml i.i |HII tlh-iv are many iiii'ii -nil KY&lg Who took |>ar1 in all tie- Did arl i vil ies and brulalilies uf ihe rfi«aJillR days. For these nam tie-re iwiv two kinds i>{ ma\ nnrmally resident Dfl 1 i m - roa<l ;ind itflflhds: [i) A kfcFlijrJ seal, a sinall animal

witli ;,,, nndcMvfiiVi hjuS valuable for itu p-iH ; i ii) A fcl Hair" seal; a Inrgi'r animal

with rip iimh'r-l'nr when adult., and valnabl mil\ for its hid.' and oil.

We ina\ say that a i*nr seal ia an animal whieh when adnll averages «!« tool for a win- ( g ) and live IV. a fur a klnpniaieh ( ? ).

The hair seal, mi lie- oiher hand, is I'ar larm-r: ;in adnll hnll goftlg In t#na or m*ll mm-.-, feet, ami an adult klapmateh to an average of ahmit dight.

What ;nv the proper speeirie names \\>v the-' Iwn animals.'

IN'-ron givjW Iho Iltsl di'sm'iption of 1 1 if Sonih Anslralian seals, and, to blj mind. Iiis aeeonnt (despite fhy tee'1 lhal his promised inonnLTapb never saw (lie li-jhl of day i is eloar enon^h, kviui ml Hie rnnnhm aee.mnt (>f the voyage.

His tii-sl -.p.-.-ilir naming or.-nrs in the deseripl i-ai ..f animals s<rii on Kaii^ni-on Maud duriiiLi tie1 stay 1'rnm 1 )eeemher. 1802, to February, 180B, The original aeeoiini is as EollbtfH: '-I'armi les Mioeaees manlo-mr-; .pii penplo'e-ni les !'iva-vs d<- Tilr. on disl iiej;ii'»it siniuiil nn noiiv.'llr .■spree dtl geftV* <Marie

[Otnriu tmffM, S".5 m'h parvfcui a La kiugrifiir de 80 a #i deeimetres (9 a JO

pj.'ds ':. Le poil de eel aiumal est Ires roiirl. ttC« dliret. Ires LM'">sier: mais S0T1 mir est epais el foi't, et [ hnile .|ii'on piepare ;iv«- s,-i -^raissr esi anssi hiaiih' on ahomlante.

^l'nnr I mm el Tantfe rapp-n-t. la peehe de eet amphihie ofl'riroil &v |>reeiri|-,

availla^es: il .-II is de IliellM- de rpiehpH'S ailtl'es espeCCS '\'- IMineaerv |illls pelltes

1<> K'i (<»ki»- 0] mi s.A. VfllREl m

i|ii'uii Irmnr iigalHUUBDl ''fi I res-jiTiilhl 1 1 i > 1 1 1 1 > i*< ^ snr C{J8 horn's, d >|iii poHeiil »lcs I'oi I rr 1 1 res (lc bonne (|ii;ililrs

To Allen i ' > such ;i drs'-ripl ion might jllKtilj UfaoH *N Otitrin r-i ik r> ,/ heme-

placed among "mythical and unriekTrttinabk sptspkV ; bui oulj fb*j [adc «»r

locril klUnWcil^C conhl \\;irr;iiil ihis j»l I il inb\ || is obvious Hull: (Ii ['ettttr's

Ottwiu cinurm wnnn largo-seal nine to ten feet tongj (-) thai ii w;is ;> hair seal;

(g) ili;ii its otdy value lay in its IgaJjw and oil, i h ih,.i u w;^ riiffmrni from

the sunillcr 1*1 1 1- se;ils which r\islnl Hi glVrfl numbers. .iii.I which were licit s|HTili.-;(lls mimed.

Tin- next |>luisc in the history of I his specific minie is ils rc-nse |>j Quqj ,hi<I < "rjiit»Hf<L These ;i iM Inns, during HlO Voycurc <>[' ihc * ' Asl rohibc ' ' e\;nnined ;i sc;il

irnin Western Port, and identified ii with Olwrw wmmh .iVtoh. 4<Conuim unite

fttpOUf* fO. ruin/a ), "1(J limine sclnli noils <|lic ee||,- <|ui linl|s nee|||M\ ;i el c ;nlmU

hois h-s ualaiugftm ' They then dewrihe an ;nluh male i>cal sevon feci long, and nil pawing Ihi1 hair ot which "..n \mi mm fauture mux p«j cpais,'1

Thin Quoy und <oiim;ii-«l's Otatk Ctelttlms was an anluiaJ altogether diffwW from r-Ton's oittn<{ pJnerm in obvious, Ii is therefore diffimdl in see how Quoy and (iaimard'a specimen, which is preserved in the Zoological Oalh'rj rtf tho

Museum ill tin' p|;inlin c|cs I'hintes. e.ui ri^hlly b<! li'ifwixl W ils the l\pc of CHtflTl ffM*Wfl IVfnii, nil In .ii^li ChuA 10" luis siie-csle<| I his course.

Tu llmsc r«unili;i]' wit h the K;m-<l Srjils of South Australia il is ;H nit.-e H))J)aj?eUi I h;il I Venn ;ipplie,| |JlG mime Olttriu rlinn.i In tin* kir.L'r h;iir >e;il of KangHfcw Ishiml (there call, I pUblllil, be no ;illcrii;ilivr 1<» this suo'uvsli.^i i. whiisi Quay and Oauuardj in HWfr, applied LV't'Oii^ nam.' in ih.- buwIIcl' fnu

s«-iil Hi'- animal which IVmn bad mi-nlimir.l Iml h.hl iiuf ii;inn-.l.

In onlcr (o nni-civi'l ihc nonicnrhii hit and s\ nonnin> ol' Ihcsc <mi nn^U M is Ih's! to jnlhrrc In Ihr I - -mi i noli my nl' Ihc ohl sc;ilcrs. ;in,| ,|r;l| lirsl Willi ll»r II. up sell ;iinl I hen wil h I he Knr sc;il.

The Large Hair Seal, nlso [ocallj icnnc.l ihc (fowled s,';»l or t'ouasellor Bfebl, in books often f.ernied Aiisimlhin Ben Lion.

I»\' sc.-ilci-s ihc iinilc is known ns the hull .nnl the rcnuilc ;is I h«« k hi pnnileli.

1 fi I I'ei-nii fl) undonbtedlj rftlwtnl tu Ihia awiraal when he bosrtow^d the iirinic Qhtria chw-rea on ihc large buir wtal "l* Kangaroo Maiid il-h' f)c<»n*R)

Since nn nienlinii is nunlr nf 1 1i, li-hl inmir i>v cnwl in IVTnnV, .h'scriplinii. il

>ccnis certain thai his diagiHNia wag imtclfi from klnpnuiiciics Jm.j yaxwg huN- imljr.

(ft) l'<'ron iL') ,-ilsn .-crtJiinlN wvi- Hie (Harm tdbkoltis to Ihc same

specie.-, when II.' s<lW III-' nhh',- hulls nil Si. Pot.i T Ish'llhl ( Isle Kll^vjicl. His

•; ' i Allrn, !lislni\ nf \«,illi \ iii <• i -i.-.-ni I 'ilUUht'll&j !5lSt!, Ij "I I

Wool? Jones -EARED SEALS OF SQPTH Ai Si HAi ia |1

description is as follows: "Tons ees individns apparlem»ienl a fuM CSpW<? nmivelie fin giVtau [Wtkmliel' llHO j'ai mi devoir eiahlir SOUS le ftom d*< Marie, lis pan - i « ' 1 1 1 1 « ' 1 1 1 a la loUgCUr de 3 a !) pieds, et se disting'nenl Mir-loiil par IU1G grjUUfl larln' Manehe a la pfti'tu1 QloyeilTM' rf snperieiire ,|u pQUj K'-Bbl d'apiv, m- raraetere, (pic jraJ d.'rril t& phoeare ttcniveau SOUS te nom d'OUli'it! Alln^'lli'"

I Qfti/rih alMeottis X. ).

IV'-mii eonlraste.i their behaviour a\ it li ihat of Other seals, am] said HtCJ Wre • nalnnil linai mollis fmiide (|iuj ees dernmrs" ; another indiealion lhal tic ua-- dealing With bnliS <»i* a -pe<-ie> of whieh he had previously seen only klap


I r i Gray :"5j ftliamed the sum' animal as Arclm-t phalllS lolxthts. [d) Quoy and fiaimard (4) rede>eril>ed a small 1'einale speeimen I'i-h Kirnj' George's Sound trader the nam.' Otoi-tiu auxtmlit, they having previously

b6StOW ed I'lTini's iijiiih' cw/o'e-/ on I he Knrseal of W-^sP-iii I'oil in rrrnr.

(( I PctDUR (12) gWC1 H HH IlifJ o]hnion lhal OtUrtd ''"'"'''". 0, !,thiihist and '>. ulhii'olHs were synonym.-.: but lie does nol mention the ihthi on whieh he arrived a! I Ins opinion.

Willi various generic* desiynai iou», il WttM known under llm specific pi luluif'is or hjlxiht, mini in 1875 <"lark (10) revived Fermi's name Qtaria


In Australian S500l()glnHl li 1 1 1*41 lUT*, however. | he :>peeilie nana- lobaiUH lM'r sifted until Alexander [IS) deserihed il under 1lm name TpMIWiOpittH alh'collis.

Sine.' il eannof he nifiinlained lhal Fermi's th'seriplion oj' Ihe Kanuaroo Idnml hair soal Ls so vague as lo [pave ill rfcttibi LTife .•e,inal animal io which lie applied I In1 sprriiic uame chl?Wil% I Ins nanm dueil. I be aeeepled as till! d'-siL*n;il lull Of I lie speems.

The Small Fur Seal, someiimes known as tlie Sea hear.

liy sealers tin- male is known as llm vvig and the female asj |jie klapmaleh. IT) P'Toil 1; termed this species ' * l'hoeaees pins peliles t[lli porlenl d'-s Inlirriires de boillN? «pialih'."" lie did Ool, llo\Vev<T. |irsh)W l\ sp<-ritir inline on

it in I lie " Voyage." .'\.>n if lie may ttaVC so in the lost mQUpgraph.

(b) Quo)' and <;aim;ird [i) r^U'Wi^i il tO OtUtia rimr**! I'.'-mn in cri'nr. r <;niy i 'U ") .'onfiis.-d il witli a poi*ttHitly disiinH KpeciesS, OkftiTHl furstrri I hrssull. IffiJS).

i.7, \.» ..iln-r nmiir h.-is <-\r\> Imtii applird Lo it. iV.r Allen, (larls, and ;ill later writers 1 1 ; t cillier ae.'epled llie crrMinuMis designation of tyim r< a Vr\\w\ ..r ruiil'iised il with fnr<hr> \\ is ohvions, I In-reTore. "thai ihr small I'nr seal iff the roasls of South An-1ralia is JCDologiv^l lly an nnnam.'d -pe«-i,-.. ; i u < I lliis l-rin- sc I pr«i|M>sr I'ur il the specific name of tlurifrrtis.

12 l\i < ,.Rirr: m] Tin, S.A. Mi shu.m

Willi nvimnl In llm gcwrk' designation of llirsc sperms, l?ArO?l^ ^vnri'ic fiflc Ohiriu is ^mimnilly agretft] '<> him* Ihth created I'm- Otitnu jiilniln. Accepting

Oititm nihahi ,-is 1 1n- typfc <>!' llm mmin!y pk« l-viius Ohirid. I sit im ivjismi in (lissmil from r»c(l(|;.n'i.l s rmmliisinn ( - ) ,ill Ihr rest of llm Bared S<»;ils slmnh I be tin I » r;i(MM 1 in K. ('mitTs genus Ari'l ort phul ns (1824), <>!' wli'mli I lie ty.flt* in I'hut'u iirsiiht, Tliciv arc rrrt.-iinly no diffet'CUtiaJ \'<'i\\ iif's uf .umimrir r;ink In separate dm n us tuid dorlferutt*

Tilt* syiiiHiuiny is ns follows Ulm works ;nv inferred U) '»> numbers ill P'K' tart] :

Arctocephalus cinereus.

il'i ISIii. (Harm i-nnrni IWoii. Yoy;iLm mix Tcrrcs Aufitraifcs. ii. p. TV. (20 1816; Ohir<'tt atbkoilk Pt?roir, op. <■>/. *///;., \>. lis. (3) 1S'_\s. Arctocephalus l<>f><ih>< Gjray^ HpfcHugifl Zwilogieti, purl i. p I, pi. iv. fig. 2,

(4} 181J0. Oturhl UU&trtitM t^tiOy Mild <ij|imnnl. JSOOlOgU' i|ll Yn\;l<iV 'I.-

I Wst roL'ilx1. i. p. U5, <T> ) I.SIJM. Arrfo<'< }Jhtl us h/ihtl its < ; < n i h I , Mmmmils of A list r;ili;i, iii. |>. 40. Ml) 18t>& \<uj)hoca fohtiftts Gray, Ann. .•iikI Mag. X;i1. llisL. xviii. p. 231. (7J 18($6. (Harm hihaht iVln's, Almmlsb. Ak;i<l. Wiss. IhtI'iu, pji. 276,

668, (81 1870. Zitloplnts ktbatm Allm, Iiiillriin, Mus, Harvard, ii. p. II.

(!)) 187S, Z<lh>f)hiis lolxttlts Srnll. AhlliUllJil i;i. IiYimmiI ;illi| Kxlilirl. p. 21.

i 10) 1*7:>. Otark nlbieollh dark, P.X.S.. pp. B5QM577,

illi 1876. Afctoeephalm lohaim, in ElamtN's Smith Aus- tralia} p. 283.

i1_!) 1877. Qtariu ofnerea Pt*tei*&, Monatsb. AJtart, Wist*. ImHin. pp. SOS-?.

ii:!i 1887. Eainetopiaa vn<cr<xs Tnnmr. Vayago t)l II. M.S. Challenger, xxvi. Report «»n Srjils. p,. 7!) fin pari i.

fl4j 1803, ZaTuphm fcbuUt* Qgilby ♦'• D,p Ckt. Ahnnm., p. Kft

(15) 1920. Eunif tojtnts Cllb I COl I is Al<'x;nulm\ Jmirn. Linn. Sn.-., (Zool.),

xxx iv, p. 17s

(16) 1922. Arctoci shah's forsteri Wood Joticn, Trans. Roy. Soc, South

Auslrciliii. xlvi. p. 198,

Arctocephalus doriferus sp. nov.

i:17) 1816, SnimII I^nr Sr;t| nf Kmnjamn Isl.-iml, IVmn, <>}>. r//.. p. 118. i lSi 1S:!(). Ohir'm i'iinrci, QllOV & (i.-iimnril, \'nynu<' «h' I' A>i ml.-jlH-.

Zoology ). i. p. s!>.

(-) Betidiii-fl 'ri-;in>. /ni. i. sm-,. \ii. is|mi, |>, ;ir»i)

Wood Jones eared skais or sonu Australia 13

(1!ii 1N.VJ. Archirt pint! tis cm mis Qftoy, I'.Z.N.. p. :C)S.

(20) i87». Qtaria mncmh Clark, P'&Sn pp. /fi0-7(J0. f2tl 1H84. f>/«Wf/ tinnm Clark, tor, rffc, pp. 188-196, (22j 1874. Euotaria rwwQ Ortiy, EJaiicI r^itd of Seals, rteM in R-Vit. Mnv.

p. 84 i •_!•'! i 1 s 7 '. L EnOtfirift dum a MfeOoy, Prod. Zool. Viet,. Pn-.. iw. pi. 31, p. 7, (34] 1882. EtmlniHi mural MtfCoy, Prod, Zool. Yiel.. Dee.. \iii. pi. 71.

pr( 7.

(25) 1887; /w/n" topius cwevciw Turner, foe. cR

■Jili fgfl*. AmiofA ftlmlns fttrsh n OgMby, /<><•. r/7., p. 1*_}7. (271 1900. ArclfH't -filial us fursh ri [jUGflS & tjP Roiifcf, Aniimils of Aus- Indi.i. p. 16 (with M<*< -Oy *s <|rseript foil and fijtfl PPS <»t Kuolarm

In ord M1 to i'lea.r some further uimerhnuiios from 1 his question, i1 is well to

iimhide ill'1 s\ mmomy [>f I lie typienl fur se;d of Xmv /enkiml.

Ar otocephalus forsteri.

(28) 1S28. Qtarfa forsteri Osson, Diet, < l.-iss. <niist. X ;*i . . xiii, p. 4.1. (29 i 1829, Phcwffl forsteri Fischer, Synop. Ahumm, p. 232, 3.0] 1844, P/w« wr*??w Fqi'&te£. Descript. An'mml.. p. < > 4 . ;M1 186G. Aretoccpkalm ohierws Cfray, AnH. Stag, Nat Hisi,. xvi'u,

p. &36, f321 ISfiB. Arbtwepkalu&fvt&Uri Gill, P<ro& 8*mw lnsi'n.. v. pp. 1-13.

i.:>:{"i 1872. Areh><'< filialus cm* n us lleelor, Tnms. \e\v Ze;d;i ml liislilule iv. p. 196.

(34) 1872. Gypwphocti h'opiMlis Gray, P.&S., p. B30-

(35) 187IJ. oinria forsteri Clark, J0& <•//. x///>.

(30) WOflL AyrtQCfphalUH forst&ri Waite, Bnbaiiterotic Islands of Ww ZfiataiUl, ii, p. 548.

Til? dist iimiiishiim- elmrm-lm-s of tlmse iluve sperms hit ;is follows: ARCTOCEPHALUS CINEREUS P-ron.

Adult imile, LO to 1- IVH. Adult feumle. B 1o LtJ tVM.

Adull with emirse Im'tr only; d;irk red ntider-fot I'itsdi! in pups, hut slmd I, -urn-.

{TOlOUr. Adult Miih-. Tim entire hody hmwn, with tin* exception of tin1 hii'im yellowish nm»m wh'mh exlends from llm rn.wu of I In- he;id lo the shoulders.

Adult Female-- Brown on 'he dorft&l Kip'faee; y^ntra] surface pale yellowish

whit<'. Tups Of both sexes |)ro\VH throimhoul.

Wds of the I hr.''1 middle digits of the pes exleiidiim lo 1 1n- \'n>r wJge ftf th-

mterdigital webhing;

II Records 03 i 1 1 1 s.A. Muski m

Prolongations ni middle three digits falling r.-ir slmri <>r those <>!* Lateral


('ntii'ml chariirhrs. Adult Male. The Kftggitd] and uuelml erests arc extremely well (l^YrtopCtl, H\\(\ llm - k 1 1 1 1 is [Urge and massive. I 'nndyln hasal length to :!()() „,,„.

Adull Female. Crests no1 nearly so well dwrinpedi Cnndylo-hasal length to 250 mm.

liolli Sc\.'s. I ill crorlutjil cnnsl riet ion, beliiml supra orhilal pnn'issis, k ' 1 . i

lively sliori. broad, and rounded Zygomatic aiHih withotil t&arlfed posi orbital

proeesses. Posterior ends rrf ua.>ak I'.i M i ih_l ronsh lerahly short of posterior r\\ i-'-miiy Of superior maxilla.

Dental vhartiet&rsi. Cheek teetli varisihlv 5— or H rl the smaller for*

-. .,

mnla hDlilg most rrr(|iifni \\ inci w ii li

Willi num. -reus small variaUe froases of 11th einv;ulum, hut with no regular seeondary cusps.


A<lult male. ,-iIhhiI ii IVrl. Adult female, al»out 5 Eefit

Adults wild coarse hair, hilt a rich elmstnii! under lur relaincd I lirou^iioul.


Colour* Adull Male. Greyish in-own <m the dorsal Fuir&ce. Dad? brown

mi i lie vciii r;d siirfaw.

Adull hVmalc. Ashy <jre\ nr yellowish brown oil dnrsal surfaee. I > ; 1 1 k hrow ii mi vent ral surface.

Pups of hoi 1 1 sexes. Dark brown.

\;iils of three tuiclctlc digits of the poR fail to extend to the Eree edge of the rnterdigltal webbing by considerably oiorc Hmwi their own length.

Prolongations of middle three pedal digits pra:e1 ieally w\\in\ to those of lateral dibits.

Cnniial rluintrh rs. Adull Male. Orpftffl hiil poorly marked, mid dilTVreue.« between the SCXCfi Unl m-arlv sn pimmum-ed ;is in .1. cimn lis.

( 'midyhebasal |eiiu|h. jidnll male, to about 25fJ mm.

Condylo-basal length, adull female, to aboul 200 nun.

Both Sexes. I Hi erorldl ,il eonl riel ion, hehind sn praorbital proeesses. long and narrow.

SSygOTlial ie arelt W'it ll \\ <•! I d< ' \e|oped pi >st-c >H I i I ;i I prnerss. Pnslerinr ends of

nasals nearly peaching posterior margins of superior maxillae.

lh nltil rlhirur/t r*. Cbcefc teeth \-?» i*I;»l I \ *=$. or *Uj ihe Larger for- mnhi hefiXig usiinlly mel with. Willi well-defined finlerior and pnslerinr seeuiidnry V\V$pti on all exrrpt I lie 1,-isl Upper mnhir.

WO'Os Jones Eared Seals of South Australia 15


Adult male, (j 10 7 IVi-1. Adull female. ."> to 6| IVel .

Aduhs wiili coarse hair, bui a ligrhi red -brown under fur retained through- out life.

Colour, Uolh sexes. Dorsal surface dark hrown, uvi/./.lr<| by i he pTPKenpp i.f while tips to ill" dark hairs. Ventral surface reddish limwu.

Nails of the thi'ee iiii'ldh' pedal dibits Tail to reach 1he free ed<_re uj' the

intercUgital nebbing by their nwn length,

rcolniio;(l ions ..I" middle three pedal dibits m»1 quit •• so luiej a> those of

lateral digits.

Cnnintl clntrdrlt rs. In most grOKfc details falls within Ihe ran^e of variation of . I 'fori ft ins.

Condylo-I.asal Leilgth of males and females to ahonl 230 inni.

/>niln! i-hiinirhrs, Cheek teeth normally with Cltllv .m ftlltpriOi1

5— o

-rr.,i)dary misp rimflg from the ci'tiL-ailum.

Distribution of these three species. Arctoa ftlnrfiix eijicreus ranges from I imp man's Alrolhofl tn the wort to tin

islands of Mass Straits in Mil? cast, In tln^r islands ils present existence is, according to Lrtrdj floabtfiil. A1 one time its range extended to the m;iinland qf Tasmania, for its hones arc Creqtlfnl in Ihe kitchen middens of (lip aborigines*. Thfi headtpiarlers of the SpeClPS is imw the islands in Ihe (ireat Australian Bight.

A rrtof /,/nihts <hint'/ rns i\])\\;\ri-u\\y ranged frmn thr I *<'«-lici*r h«* uronp in fhc

A\rsi to the eastern coasts of Australia ami to Tasmania, Ai prcsnii ii appears to be confined to eertain islands off Tasmania I Isle dm- Phorjues, 1 1 1 « * [Iippdlytes, ete.)i tn the islands of l»ass SlraiK, ;iih| to Casuarina Islands, off Kangaroo Island.

It is vears since om» was sen by a reliable obSei'Ypr on Kangaroo Island, ilsclf, and, though H is ofleii reported 'is living on the ishinds rxf the liiulu, i he w 1'ilei* has seen no tivrtlg animal not' I'eeenl speeimen. Moreover, no skeletal i .'in.-iiiis have been fOUUd on any of ihe numerous islands of the Bigftl visited during th.P pasl live years, though a scaworn iind broken skull was found on the beach of D*Bstree Bay, Kangaroo Island, in Mareh, 192$. The animal still Lives

on the t'asuarina Islands (a proclaimed saneluan )., whence ihe lasl nargO |>I

iit'hs was taken in 1 f)l 2.

\h Records of the S.A. Museum

A ri'/occp/uil us forsteri frequented the coasts of New Zealand and its sub- antarctic islands, and has many times been reported as a member of the Aus- tralian fauna, probably being confused with .1. doriferus. Of its recent status in New Zealand we have the pleasing assurance of Waite (36) that its numbers have increased, "and if poaching, which undoubtedly takes place, can be stopped, there is no reason why the animal should not again people its old haunts."

| The peculiar word ' ' Klapmatch, applied lo female seals, is evidently derived from "Klapmyd," the Danish name of the Hooded or Bladder-nosed Seal (Cystophora oristat(b). The word "Wig" is I he technical name Eor the coarse hair on the shoidders of a full-grown male fur-seal, hence for the seal itself.— Editor.!



by Edgar R. Waite, F.L.S., C.M.Z.S., Director, SA Museum


The following are extracts from notes on observations made from time to time, mainly in the field, either by myself or by others, to whom the notes are acknowledged. For assistance in connection with the photographs and drawings I am indebted to Messrs. H. M. Hale and B. C. Cotton, of the Museum staff.



I'c I.lHiAK ft. W Al TR, I .I-.S., C.M./.S., DiimrnnSoiiiiAi^i^AUAN Mi -ihm,

Kiirs. 145.

Tin; 101 lowing are e.Mraels I'mm notes on observat ions made I'mm Hmn 10 tVTOO, mainly in the field, either by myself or by olhers. to whom i he llotOH arc aokllOW ledgt»il. For assistance in e011llPi?tlOT) Willi the photographs and draw inu's I ;iin indebted tn Messrs. II. \|. link- and li. I1. Cotton, Of 111'- Mnscimi Kfraff


WATER TORTOISES, Chelodinn, and Emydura.

Fm,s. 14-

Karloan. ;i Point Maeleay native, was bontl al a period when his people had to Iniiil and fish for I hemselves in llie days when ( iovernnmnt rations were untlioughi of. lie says thai his tribal nam*1 is Mnllentvpory. the kong-iierked [Vh-i lodiild loilfjicuHis Shaw\ bestowed in ;il I Msioii lo his feats in ihe walcr and his family for catchine: ' ' 1 nrl Irs' * when a little boy. 6i3fuDen?' is Ihe native name ol* I he weed amon«r which I he replile lives. The tOrtGlKtf is sought by Wftdiltg, perhaps waM < 1 < m | > . and local ed by s'ejhl Or groping with tlm hands: il dops lioi <Tmib on lo logs^ and sometimes feeds ()h hind as well a& ill ihe water. H ran Hick its head and nerk completely nnder ihr margin Of 1]10 phpllj and lays about twenty pggs in ;i li(ri(* HCDDped in Ihr uronnd ; Hie hole Is made by 1hr ivpiilr Inrninii ilsrlf round ami round and throwing out ihr sand oi- rai'th wilh its I'rri . The riru's are laid after ihr fh*$d rains in November or Dermibrr. and the young appear in hYbrnary or March. It is good lo rat.

The nrji's hiid by onr female incisure :J1 \ 20 nun . and |3vt' example.-, arc shown in ffg. 1 i mil nral si/.e ),

K'espeetini!' ibr Murray Kiver Tortoise {Emy&lWU mncqiltim Cray), Karl-. an <a\s his nami' \'nv ibis species is "Ware." and lhal il raiiimt hick iis brad ami

lirrk completely lllldcr I hr shell, f|« call llir M 1 1 1 1 en 1 V per \ . Il climbs <M|I of llir

wafer on to partially siibiner<»od logs, where ii may remain for considerable periods, bnl it feeds only in thr walrr. Thr (irsh is not ><• good as thai of Ihe Mullein \ pery. and. if much is ealeu, xms are prudnce.l <m i he body.

is Records of the s.a. Mi set™

Ivcil'lnjui s shif'-nii-ii! US tO Mil1 side\\;jys rel r;i**1 i*»M of ihe he;id ;md UH»k,

i-omplefe in ('Inhx/iini n\u\ partial in K >n <l<l u r<i, i m i u h t nlinosl be inferred from <iii examination of I he respoel ive shells, hi I he former (fig, 2) il is Free from line

-.■■ -*'f:*^r^i'^;

f, <;>'


1'iLl'. 1. EgfiS of ''/" I'l'limi tuft-fliot&tuu W'lluoil 5UBB;

;iM;i.-lmicn( ( > t' 1 lie .six i 1 1 . n 1 1 pound MlP frpnl mar<jin. Tor iicnrly an inch Litl<l(?r ihe r;irapaee in IdrgG examples, and about hall thai span- above I hi1 plastron. Ill iUinttluni \ . (i»\ '■) K thomrh Free