stale ae hehe Teasley?

a! sratabi abet Rati)



EN ¥, con gaye DDS eeu aN ae aaa On eee, ie Thy "tpt

tee eS

Daye oes eae) Pytedy stata Hs Deaheabeid a lala, PLE pte) RSE tetas 3 rE pratt shana’ eer Bhs D ye iotey fi patenting Saisie Steak eee ptacater po) oan nate Bratt aa! 84 BeOS entree PoEnoLntnten bono love canine tye Sp CECA AO C Ce aot le nese PRN ie 2 eH

Pe ay ee S ag fs (8) ORS non etneye


i APP St iy aan eh tae 7

it Seas * Ba 1b gala’ ay ab i Sea Loa i p! Gat ihe a Bee SUOMI oo ini aalelDla ao stinuatai tot anit acah yt Hints? pt st Eat ¢ Y : f + eee seins i

os 4 tidy ena 2 an ae yee ia

ys se iy) Poe ey cy Reena PAH MMRNE < , ph, UA ds Peay


Shaan si bit atate) a atotytetolaey * 7, Aah “i


eo y

ne ye need 4 fe ateie 2 Se shit i oy


at =e

a metere




toy tot Feat Heh

Fer ait st, pee ne ty Shee ee Pipe cr Eripal nts Peis 7 vr 2 :

er Cott osad en)

phen aa Sree




trator, te Snes

oe Coe Re AOS Sardines


_ obs



eat ep ar otete wes eas ah che

or Sr wetsy


A J ast

x <a %







E> Ernst | Les (hry




ge" Muse Doc Joowmy Harvard Lt Cae 3










~ 5 a


It may be necessary in introducing this little volume, to state, that it is strictly conchological, and that it is com- piled for the use not only of those who wish to acquire an elementary acquaintance with the subject, but also of authors and others, who, desirous of extending their know- ledge and pursuing their researches, require a book of re- ference, containing a general outline of what has been done by those who have trodden the same path before them. It has been thought advisable, for general convenience, to ar- range the principal part of the information in alphabetical order ; adding tables of the systems of Lamarck and De Blainville, to facilitate the systematic pursuit of the science.

Persons of the class first alluded to, will find great assist_ ance in the explanation of technical words, their application being further illustrated, in most cases, by a reference to the figures ; and, although they might have been multiplied, it is trusted that enough are given for every useful purpose.

The definition of the Classes, Orders, Families, and Ge- nera, in the system of De Blainville, and a tabular view, are presented for the use of those who prefer it, or who wish to compare it with that of Lamarck.

In the explanation of the figures, will be found a syste- » matic arrangement of shells, according to Lamarck, includ- ing the names of genera established or proposed since the publication of his system. The descriptions of established


genera, have been rendered as concise and clear as possible. It is hoped that no essential characters are omitted, and that those livings authors, whose proposed generic distinctions have been passed over in a few words, will not have to complain of want of justice in the attempt to interpret their meaning.

In most cases the generic name will be found accom- panied by its derivation. This has been done, in the hope of assisting the memory by associating the meaning of a term with some peculiarity in the thing described. At the end of each description of a genus, some general observations occur, pointing out the principal character which distin- guishes it from others, to which it is nearly allied ; and also stating the geographical or geological distribution and habits of the animal.

The above descriptions and definitions, are illustrated by a series of plates, containing above 500 etchings of nearly as many proposed or established genera, arranged in La- marckian order, so as show at a glance all the generic forms of each family. And, although, from their number, they could not be very highly finished, it is hoped that they will be found characteristic.

The compiler cannot replace his pen, without acknow- ledging, with filial gratitude, the kind assistance of one who has sacrificed much of his time in bringing his knowledge _and experience to bear upon the correctness and utility of this humble attempt to remove some of the difficulties to which the commencement of this, as well as of every other

study, is exposed.


THE science of Conchology, delightful as it is, affords an instructive amusement for the leisure hours of those, who, retiring from the gaities of fashionable life, find their plea- sure in the quiet contemplation of some of the smaller, but not the less wonderful operations of creative wisdom. And although the study of shells would be more complete, and rank higher in the scale of philosophical pursuits, were it accompanied by that of the animals inhabiting them, it still presents a fund of intellectual gratification, to many who cannot follow it beyond the cabinet and boudoir. They may examine, with admiration and mental improvement, the beautiful colouring and exquisite architecture of these ' wonders of the deep, and looking to the great Author of all, exclaim with an inspired naturalist, “‘ Lo! these are parts of his ways.”

It is but little that can be known of the science, without forming a collection of greater or less extent; for, as it would be uninstructive merely to delight the senses by ad- miring the bright colours and elegant forms of a few shells, without obtaining any information respecting them, so it would be insipid to learn technicalities, without being ac- quainted, by observation, with the objects which they de- scribe. We will, therefore,endeavour to direct the learner to the easiest method of studying the subject, proceeding upon the supposition, that he possesses asmall parcel of shells without any previous knowledge of the science.


It may be desirable, in the first instance, to peruse the ex- planations of technical terms used in descriptions, and then to pass through the plates, comparing the figures with the list, and referring from the list to the definition of the names of the principal divisions found in the body of the work. A general notion having thus been obtained of the arrange- ment of the principal forms, the learner may proceed to take a shell from the drawer; if it be a bivalve* shell, he will know that it is included in the class Conchifera ; if a multivalve, he will find its place in the class Cirripedes ; all his shells may thus be arranged in classes. Proceeding with the smaller divisions, the shells composing a class may be divided into orders by a similar process, always taking care to turn to the definitions, and to examine the shells. When, by further carrying on this operation, the shells are arranged in families, one at a time may then be compared with the figures of the genera contained in the family to which it belongs, and a little careful examination will pro- bably connect it with some generic form. The definition of the word must then be turned to, for purpose of ascer- taining whether the shell agrees with the description of the genus which it is thought to resemble. If, for stance, the shell having a row of little notched teeth on the hinge, has’ been placed in the family of Arcacees, and on further com- parison with the figures, it is observed that the hinge-line is straight, and that there is a flat area behind it, the learner will imagine it to resemble the genus Arca, and will turn to the definition of the word, to find whether the description agrees in other respects. Thus, comparing shells with figures, and the explanation of plates with the definition of

* The Word Bivalve, has been inadvertently omitted in the text, but will be found described in the list of Errata.


words, the student may soon complete the arrangement of the few shells he is supposed to possess. It may then be desirable to pass through the system, with a view to as- certain whether the collection contains an example of each of the principal divisions; if not, they may be procured at a small expense; and then, by all means, let a collection of genera be formed as complete as possible. It may be as well here, to advise those who are forming a collection, to be very particular in every practicable instance, to have the shells properly namea at the time of purchasing ; as it will save much trouble, and materially assist in the attain- ment of the desired object.

Let none be discouraged by the number of generic dis- tinctions created in modern times ; for, if well defined, they will be found to facilitate rather than to encumber the study. ‘The knowledge of species must be the foundation of every system, and the greater the number of species, the greater is the necessity for systematic distinctions. If, for instance, all the species now known, were to have been included in the fifty Genera of Linneus, a single genus would have contained many hundreds of species, and it would be more difficult to remember them, in that case, than if they were divided into ten times the number of genera. Every well marked division, however arbitrary its limits, tends to simplify the subject, and to facilitate the researches of the student.

sod eat b woes a ert £ wa % Hal or ig Ry é ul p hues ee oe sina 20

ak ni ie te ak sly ; aime ‘ie nai ‘Winds esti Rat ey

pe OU Sy \caes ut #5 E Sas ; x. 4 BY a 2h Aa . oot Oe 4

ety, Pipe Vo, is ‘Pea bibs) aan nay Pant ota (en a ek mea onmte gin vt s) Cue. HY MEN + 1.0 iis e0% Bas te By abe phil ipa}

A) Penne ORI Mes at NHK, beat tt LEE 4 SAM HORS. ree iar 0 ee pois Beit. pebins TANG OL Gna

Cape os yahs ana OND AMOR! Vis, sei tiH ace

Ades ar paite 6 TR Res SaaS % wii di aasts Ron Bey tah eit yiser - Recaye ee a0 PAGS ladb: ab Sapsdlh, todenaeasy oF uaa


bie FDU ert sda, SMES Bee Ok. bag


A Sa aT pres Wt. Alera eho)

Bik Stytiienas OF maid tose)

sehinbiaincincesn) 5) nha


Pace 2. Achatinella. for Sow. read Sw. Swainson. 3 Alatz, omitted a comma between Apporhais and Petiver.

13. Omitted, BIVALVE. A shell composed of two equal or nearly equal parts, turning upon each other by means of ahinge. The Bivalves compose the class Conchifera, Lam.

31. For Crenatuta, read Crenatula; for Mityloides, read Myti- loides.


+ ae LED. Sb Rel nigga, cB Fae Ace, a Zz . éb

st pile hay


AB/SIA. Leach. Liruorrya, Sow. Fam. Pedunculated Cirri- pedes, Lam.

ACA’MAS. Mont. Bexemnires multiforatus, Bl. A species described as being terminated at the apex by a stellated perfora- tion. This is supposed to have been described from a broken spe- cimen, as no fossil is now known agreeing with the description.

ACAR’DO. Commergon. Described from a pair of bony plates, placed between the vertebrze of the whale, and mistaken for a bivalve shell, destitute of a hinge.

ACAS'TA. Leach. Order, Sessile cirripedes, Lam. Batanus Montagui, &c. Sow. Separated from Balanus, on account of the cup-shaped process at the base, but re-united by Sowerby, who shews that this is a mere accidental circumstance, resulting from the situations in which the shells acquire their growth. The Acastz are found imbedded in sponges. Hz. Acasta Mon- tagul, fig. 26.

ACA’VUS. Montf. Fam. Limacinea, B]. Colimacea, Lam. A divi- sion of the genus Hetrx which may be considered synonymous with De Ferussac’s sub-genus Helicogena. De Montfort has figured H. Hemastoma. See fig. 267.

ACCESS’'ARY VALVES are the smaller or less important testa- ceous plates, as distinguished from the principal or true valves. Ex. The small plates on the hinge of Pholas, fig. 55. a.

ACEPHALOPH’ORA. BI. (a, without; Keane, cephale, head.) The third class of the type Malacozoaria, Bl. including all bi- valves, the animals of which have no distinct head. The Ace- phalophora are divided into the orders Palliobranchiata, Rudistes, Lammellibranchiata and Heterobranchiata, the last of which contains no testaceous mollusca.

ACHATINA. Lam. (From Achates,an agate.) Fam. “‘Colimacea,”’ Lam. Limacinea, Bl. Potyrnemus, Montf. Descr. Shell, oval or oblong, sub-turrited, light, thin; aperture oval, pointed at the posterior extremity ; outer lip sharp; columella smooth, tortuous, truncated so as to form a notch at its union with the outer lip. Obs. It is from the latter circumstance that we are enabled to distinguish Achatine from Bulini, which, moreover, have a re-



flected lip. The Polyphemi of Montf. have an undulation in the outer lip. A. Virginea, fig. 286. Polyphemus Glans, fig. 288.

ACHATINELLA. Sw. Is a small group of shells, differing from Achatina in having the inner edge of the outer lip thick- ened, and a slight groove near the suture of the spire. Fig. 287.

ACHE'LOIS. Montf. Conmurres Achelois. Knorr. Sup. t. iv. fig. 1.

ACIONA. Leach. Scanaria, Auct.

AC’TCZHON. Montf. Tornateia, Lam.

AC’TINOCAMAX. Stokes. A genus of Belemnitiform fossils.

ACUMINATED. Terminating in a point, as the apex of Me- lania Subulata, fig. 313.

ADDUC’TOR MUSCLE. That which draws the two valves of a shell together, and leaves a mark in the inner surface of each, called the MuscuLar IMPRESSION.

ADELOSINA. D’Orb. A genus of microscopic Foraminifera.

ADESMA’CEA. Bl. (a, without; Aesua, desma, a ligament.) The tenth family of the order Lamellibranciuata, B\. composed of Mol- lusea, which either bore tubular dwellings in rocks, wood, &c., or live in testaceous tubes; their shells being consequently destitute of the hinge ligament. The action of opening and shutting the valves being limited by the narrow space in which they are confined, or else the valves themselves, being soldered into the tube, renders it unnecessary for them to have a ligament, to keep them in their places. The genera Pholas, Teredina, Teredo, Fistulana and Septaria, belong to this family.

ADNA. Leach. One of the genera separated by Leach from Pyrgoma, and characterized as consisting of a single upper valve, supported ona funnel shaped base, which is not buried in the coral to which it is attached, like Pyrgoma, but is seen exter- nally. The operculum consists of four valves. Adna, fig. 32.

AGAN'IDES. Montf. Orsuuires, Lam.

AGATHIR’SES. Montf. Siliquaria Muricata, Auct.

AK’ERA. A genus of extremely light, horny shells resembling Bua, from which it differs, in the outer lip being separated from the body whorl, and consequently elastic. Ez. Bulla Fragilis, fig. 247.

AK'ERA. Bl. The fourth family of the order Monopleurobranchi- iata. Bl. containing the genera Bulla, Bulleea and Bellerophon. ALAA. Jeffreys. A genus of minute land shells, resembling Vertigo, but separated because they are dextral, while Vertigo is sinistral. Ez. Fig. 292. A. Marginata; Pupa Marginata, Drap.

found in marshy ground, roots of trees, moss, &c.

ALASMODON. Say. Division of Unio, consisting of such species as have cardinal, but no lateral, teeth. Hx. A. Compla- natus, fig. 141.

ALATA. Lam. (From Ala, a wing.) A family belonging to the second section of the order Trachelipoda, containing the


genera Rostellaria, Pterocera and Strombus, to which would be added, Hippochrenes, Montf. and Apporrhais,Petiver. The shells of this family are distinguished by the spreading of the outer lip.

ALA’TED. (From Ala, a wing.) Winged, a term applied to shells when any portion of them is spread out in any direction as in fig. 403. Hippochrenes, Montf. and Unio Alatus, fig. 147.

ALEC’TRION. Montf. Buccinum Papilloswm. Auct. fig. 422.

ALVEOLINA D’Orb. A genus of microscopic Foraminifera,

AMAL'THUS. Montf. A. Margaritaceus, Montf. Is a species of AmmoniTE, described as very flat, keeled, with an angular aper- ture. Fam. Ammonacées, Lam.

AMBIGUZ. Lam. The fourth section of the order Conchifera Dimyaria. Containing the family of Camacea, fig. 153 to 155. AMIMO'NUS. Montf. Conirres Ungulatus, Knorr. A species

shghtly curved. Fam. Orthocerata, Lam.

AMMONA'CEA. BI. The fourth family of the order Polythala- mia, Bl. or chambered shells, including the genera Discorbites, Scaphites, Ammonites and Simplegas, distinguished. from his Nautilacea, by the whorls being visible.

AMMONACEA. Lam. Theseventh family of Polythalamous Cephalopoda, Lam. containing the genera Ammonites, Orbuli- tes, Ammonoceras, Turrilites, and Baculites, to which may be added Amalthus, Simplegas, Ellipsolites, Nautellipsites, Hamites, Icthyosarcolites, and other genera mentioned in the list of fig. 477 to 484.

AMMONITES. Auct.(from Jupiter Ammon) Fam. Ammonacées, Lam.& Bl. Descr. Symmetrical, convolute, discoidal, orbicular: chambers numerous, divided by lobate or sinuous septa, per- forated by a siphon: aperture generally more or less modified by the last whorl. The fossils of the secondary strata which compose this genus are numerous and well known, they are vulgarly called snake-stones, and some of them are very beautiful, particu- larly when the internal structure is exhibited by a section. There is some difficulty in distinguishing them from the fossil Nautili, for although the whorls being visible, and the septa sinuous may be taken as the characteristics of Ammonites, yet there are several species which partake of the characters of both. The Orbulites of Lamarck, for instance, have sinous septa like Ammonites, but the last whorl covers the preceding ones as in Nautilus. Simplegas of Montf. and Bl. has whorls visible ex- ternally and simple septa. Ammonites, fig. 478.


AMMONOCE'RATITES. horn.) The shells described under this Lamarckian genus present an anomaly, which Sowerby considers merely accidental; they resemble the Ammonites in internal structure, but instead of being spirally convolute they are merely curved likeahorn. Ez, Fig. 477, copied from Blainville.

\Lam, (From Ammon, and Kepas, ceras,


AMPHIBULI'MA. Lam. Svccrnea Patula, Auct. fig. 266.

AMPHIDESMA. Lam. (from Apdi, amphi, both, Acecpos, desmos, ligament.) Fam. Mactracea, Lam. Descr. Equivalve, oval orround- ed, sub-equilaternal, sometimes rather gaping at the sides, with a slight posterior fold; hinge with one or two cardinal teeth in each valve, and two elongated lateral teeth, distinct in one valve, nearly obselete in the other; ligament short, separated from the cartilage, which is elongated and couched obliquely in an exca- vation of the hinge. Obs. In most bivalve shells the cartilage and ligament are united in one mass, or placed close to each other; the contrary in this case gives rise to the name, which signifies, double ligament. This circumstance distinguishes the genus Amphidesma from Tellina, which in other respects it greatly resembles. From Lutraria it may be known by its distinct lateral teeth, and also by its valves being nearly close all round, while the Lutrarize gape anteriorly. The species do not appear to be numerous, no fossil species are known. <A. Reticulatum, fig. 85.

AMPHISTEGINA. D’Orb. A genus of microscopic Foramini- fera.

AMPLEX'US. Sow. A. Corrailoides, fig. 463. A singularly formed fossil, described as nearly cylindrical, divided into cham- bers by numerous transverse septa, which embrace each other with reflected margins. It occursin the Dublin limestone, and resembles a coral or madrepore.

AMPULLARTA. Lam. (Ampulla, a rounded vessel.) Fam. Peristomiens,”’ Lam. Ellipsostomata Bl. Descr. Spiral, glo- bular, sometimes discoidal, generally umbilicated, covered witha horny epidermis; spire short, whorls rapidly enlarging ; aperture elliptical, deciduous, rounded anteriorly; peristome nearly or quite entire, thickened, and slightly reflected; operculum tes- taceous, annular, with a subcentral nucleus. Obs. These freshwater shells of which a few fossil species occur, are easily distinguished from other genera, by their obvious cha- racters, particularly by the thick, horny, greenish brown epi- dermis which covers them, and the rotundity of their form. One species the A. Cornu-arietis, which forms the type of La- marck’s genus Planorbis, requires notice, on account of its flatness, but may be known by the aperture, which in the Am- pullaria is longer than wide, and in Planorbis, the contrary. La- nistes, Montf. is described from a reversed Ampullaria. The Ampullaria is vulgarly called the Idol Shell,and is said to be held in great veneration by the S. American savages. The animal has a large bag, opening beneath, placed on the side of the respi- rator cavity. It is supposed that the animal has the power of filling this bag with water, and that it is thus enabled to live a long time out of water. They have been brought as far as from Egypt to Paris, alive, packed in sawdust. Ex. Fig. 318.


ANAS’TOMA, or Anostoma, Lam. (From Ava, ana, backwards; Sroua, stoma, mouth.) Fam. Colimacea, Lam. A genus of land shells, sonamed from the singular circumstance of the last whorl taking a sudden turn and reflecting the aperture upwards, so as to present it on the same plane with the spire, so that the animal must walk with the spire of its shell downwards, resting onits foot. In other respects the two-species forming this genus resemble the other Helices, and belong to De Ferusac’s division Helicodonta. 'TomocErvus is Montfort’s name for this genus. A. Depressum, fig. 271, 272.

ANA’TIFER. Brug. Anatifera,Lam. This name which signifies Duck-bearing,” has been given to the shells commonly called Barnacles,on account of an absurd notion entertained among

- the ancients, that they enclosed, in an embryo state, the young of the Barnacle Duck, the beautiful bunch of cilize, which serve the purpose of agitating the water so as to draw in the animalculi for food, being taken for the feathers of the future bird. For a description of these shells see Pentelasmis, and fig. 34.

ANATINA. Lam. (That which belongs to a duck.) Fam. Myaria, Lam. Pyloridea. Bl. Deser. Thin, transparent, generally ine- quivalve, inequilateral, transverse, marine; hinge with a spoon- shaped process, containing the cartilage anda small, testaceous, moveable appendage connected with the interior of the hinge. By this appendage, and the thinness of the shells, this genus may be known from Mya. A. rostrata, fig. 69, resembles a duck’s bill in form.

ANATINELLA. Sow. (Diminution of Anatina.) A genus so named from its resemblance to Anatina, from which it differs, in being destitute of the internal appendage, and having no sinus in the palleal impression. Only one species is known, which was brought from Ceylon by Dr. Sispaup. A. Sibbaldii, fig. 70.

ANA’TOMUS. Montf. 2, pl. 279. A microscopic shell, appearing from the figure to be a Scissurella.

ANCILLA’RIA. Lam. Ancilla, Lam. (from latin, ahandmaid.) Fam. Enroulées, Lam. Angyostomata, Bl. Deser. Smooth, oblong, subcylindrical, spire short, not canaliculated ; aperture elongated, effuse, emarginated anteriorly; columella tortuous, oblique, tumid, truncated. Obs. The Ancillariz are pretty shining shells, enveloped almost entirely in the foot of the animal. They resemble Oliva, from which they may be distin- guished by the sutures of the spire being filled up with the shelly enamel, which nearly covers the surface, the whorls in Oliva being separated by a distinct canal. Ancilaria may be known from Terebellwm, by the tumid varix at the base of the columella. The well known Ivory Shell (Hburna glabrata Lam.) belongs to this genus, of which a few fossils are


found in London clay, Calc-grossiér and green sand, Turin. A. glabrata, fig. 455. A. cinnamonea, fig. 456.

ANCULO'SA. Say. Fam. Melaniens, Lam. Ellipsostomata, Bl. A genus proposed to include some freshwater shells, re- sembling Melania; the only difference between them being, that the spire of Anculosa is more depressed, and the anterior of the outer lip more rounded, thanin Melania. Ez. fig. 314.

AN’'CYLUS. Mill. Fam. Calyptraciens, Lam. Otides Bl. Deser. Thin, obliquely conical, patelliform; apex acute, turned poste- riorly; aperture oval, with simple margin. Obs. Although the little freshwater shells described under this name resemble Pa- tella, the animals which they enclose are nearly allied to Lymnza. A. Fluviatilis, fig. 246.

ANDROM’EDES. Montf. Vorticialis, Lam. Fam. Nautilacea, Lam. A genus of microscopic Foraminifera.

ANGULITES. Montf. Species of fossil Nautili, described by Blainville as not umbilicated, with a dorsal keel and angular aperture. Nautilus Triangularis, Buffon.

ANGYOSTOMA. Bl. The third family of Siphonobranchiata, Bl. containing the genera, Strombus, Conus, Terebellum, Oliva, Ancilla, Mitra, Voluta, Marginella, Peribola, Cyprea, Ovulum.

ANNELI'DES. Lam. The ninth class of Invertebrated ani- mals,’’ divided into three orders,viz. A. Apodes, A. Antennés, and A.Sedentaires. The last only contains testaceous mollusca. The animals are vermicular, some naked, others inhabiting shelly tubes. See Sedentary Annelides.

AN’NULATED. (Annus,aring.) Composed of or surrounded by rings, as Tubicinella, fig. 14.

AN’ODON. Lam. Fam. Submytilacea, Bl. Nayades,Lam. A genus composed of such species of Unio as are destitute of teeth onthe hinge. A. Cataractus, fig. 152.

AN'OLAX. Brogn. AwnciaRia, Auct.

ANOMALINA. D’Orb. A genus of microscopic Foraminifera.

ANOMIA. Linn. Fam. Ostracea, Lam. and Bl. Deser. Irregu- lar, inzequivalve, sub-equilateral, thin, pearly, adhering to marine substances by means of a bony appendage, which forms an oper- culum toa large circular opening in the lower valve, near the hinge; muscular impression divided into three irregular portions; hinge destitute of teeth, with a short cartilage. Obs. The Lin- nen genus included not only the shells, to which our description would apply, but also various other genera, such as Crania, Orbicula, Terebratula, &c. which belong to the Brachiopoda, and are very distinct. Fig. 186, A. Ephippium.

ANOS’TOMA. See Anastoma,

ANSA’TES. Klein. Species of Patella, which have a produced recurved beak. Heucrion, Montf. Ex. Patella Pellucida, fig. 230.

ANTEN’OR. Montf. A genus of microscopic Foraminifera.


ANTE’RIOR of a bivalve, is the side opposite to that on which the ligament is placed; of a spiral univalve, that part of the aperture which is at the greatest distance from the apex; of a symmetrical conical umvalve, such as Patella, that part where the head of the animal lays, indicated by the interruption of the muscular impression; of Cirripedes, that part where the ciliz protrude; of Brachiopoda, that part which is furthest from the umbones. Lamarck and others, have created much confusion by their inconsistencies on this subject, describing the same part of a shell at one time as anterior, at another, posterior; but generally the reverse of the above arrangement, which is founded upon the position of the head of the animal, and generally adopted. ‘The anterior will be indicated by the letter a, in fig. 119, 421, 229, 34, 202.

ANTIGONA. Schum. Venus Cancellata, Lam.

AN’TIQUATED. This word, signifying out of date, is used but rarely to express that composition which obtains in shells, by each fresh deposit or layer of calcareous matter, forming a new margin, which being replaced by its successor, no longer con- stitutes the margin, and is consequently out of date.

A’'PEX. This term has no regard to the natural position of a shell, but is used mathematically to express the nucleus, or first formed part, or point of the spiral cone, of which almost every shell may be supposed to consist. From this point the shell rapidly or slowly enlarges as it descends and takes a spiral, arcuated, straight, oblique, convolute, or irregularcourse. The Apex will be indicated by the letter a, in fig. 282, 466.

A’PERTURE. The entrance to the spiral cavity of univalve shells; it is composed of the inner lip, or /adzum, which gene- rally forms the axis of the shell, and the outer lip or /abrum on the opposite side. In fig. 318, the aperture will be pointed out by the letter a.

APHRODITA. Leach. Cardium Greenlandicum, Auct. fig. 123*, and other similar species, the teeth of which are very indistinct.

APLEURO’TIS. Rafinesque. Unfigured and imperfectly de- scribed, as somewhat differing from Terebratula and Magas.

A’PLODON. Rafinesque. Genus proposed at the expence of Helix, but imperfectly described.

APLUS'TRA. Schum. Buta Aplustra, Auct. fig. 249.

APLYSIA’CEA. Bl. The second family of the order Monopleuro- branchiata, Bl. The animals composing this family are either destitute of shells, or are provided with internal ones. Genera, Aplysia and Dolabella.

APOL'LON. Montf. Ranetua Ranina, Auct. Placed by Blain- ville in that division of Ranella, which is characterized as being umbilicated, fig. 393.


APOROBRANCHIATA. Bl. The first order of the second section of Paracephalophora Monoica, Bl. The Thecosomata is the only family of this order containing any appa to shells, these are Hyalzea and Cymbulia.

APLY'SIA. Lam. (a, without; Mvo, pluo, to wash.) Fam. La- plysiens, Lam. Aplysiacea, Bl. Deser. Horny, transparent, cly- peiform, placed horizontally on the back of the animal, with its convex side uppermost; apex slightly incurved. Oés. The animal producing this shell has derived its name from the purplish liquor which it exudes, when disturbed. In contour it presents a certain likeness to a hare crouching, and on this account was called Lepus marinus, or sea hare, by the ancients. The shell bears a strong resemblance to Dolabella, which however is much thicker and more testaceous. A. Petersoni, fig. 254.

APORRHA'S. Petiver. See Rosrettaria. <A. Pes-pelicani, f. 404.

AQUIL'LUS. Montf. Triton Lampas, Cutaceus, &c. Auct. Placed by Blainville in the division of the genus Triton, which is described as having a short spire, being covered with tubercles, and umbilicated. Triton Cutaceus, fig. 399.

ARCA. Lam. (Lat. a boat.) Fam. Arcacea, Lam. JDescr. Obliquely transverse, subquadrate, equivalve, or nearly so, ineequilateral, thick, ventricose, longitudinally ribbed, dentated near the inner margins; hinge rectilinear, forming a flat exter- nal area, upon which the ligament is spread in transverse rows, and having a series of small regular teeth, extending on both sides of the umbones in each valve; muscular impressions distant. These shells are found recent, in various marine locali- ties, fossil, in the tertiary deposits. The Arca Noe, formerly regarded as the type of this genus, has, with several other species, been separated from it under the name Bysso-arca, by Swainson, on account of an hiatus in the ventral margin to admit the passage of a byssus; this is not found in true Arce. Arca Antiquata, fig. 131. Bysso-arca Noe, 132.

ARCA’CEA. Lam. A family of the order Conchifera Dimy- aria. Lam. Consisting of bivalve shells, provided with a linear series of small teeth on the hinge. In this family Lamarck describes the genera Cucullea, Arca, Pectunculus, and Nucula, to which may perhaps be added, Crenella, Solenella, Sow. and Myopara, Lea. Fig. 131 to 138.

ARCHA‘TAS. Montf. <A genus of microscopic Foraminifera.

ARCHON’TE. Montf. Hyauma, Auct.

ARCINELLA. Schum. Cuama Arcinella, Auct.

ARC’TICA. Schum. Cypriva Icelandica, Auct.

ARCUATED. (Arcus, anarch.) Bent in the form of an arch, as Dentalium, pl. 1.

ARETHU’SA. Montf. A genus of microscopic Foraminifera.


ARGONAU’TA. Auct. Commonly called the Paper Sailor. Fam. Pteropoda, Bl Order. Cephalopoda Monothalamia, Lam. Deser. Light, thin, symmetrically convolute, carinated, concen- trically ribbed or tuberculated; aperture large, elongated; peri- treme simple, acute, interrupted by the body whorl. Obs. This elegant production of the Mediterranean and other Seas, is in- habited by a molluscous animal called the Ocythoe, provided with tuberculated arms, which, hanging over the sides of the aperture, give to the whole the appearance of a vessel propelled by oars; a poetical illusion, still further heightened by the broad flat mem- branes of two of the arms, which being spread vertically, present the idea of sails. Pliny has described it as sailing on the Mediter- ranean waters. Scientific men have long been engaged in the interesting discussion, whether the animal really belongs to the shell in which it is found, or whether, having destroyed the right- ful owner, it has possessed itself of the “frail bark.” A. Argo, fig. 485.

ARTEMIS. See Venus. Ex. fig. 118.

ARTICULATED. Jointed. Applied to distinct parts of shells, that are fitted or jointed into each other, as the valves of Chitones. The operculum of Nerita is articulated to the columella.

ARTICULINA. D’Orb. A genus of microsopic Foraminifera.

ASIPHONIBRANCHIA’TA. Bl. The second order of Para- cephalophora Dioica, Bl. Consisting of spiral univalves, which have no notch or canal at the anterior part of the aperture. This order is divided into families, Goniosomata, Cricosomata, Ellip- sostomata, Hemicyclostomata and Oxystomata.

ASPERGIL'LUM. Lam. (From Aspergo, to sprinkle.) Fam. Tubicolz, Lam. Pyloridea, Bl. Descr. The small, equal, equi- lateral valves are cemented into, so as to form part of a large tube; the umbones are slightly prominent outside. The tube is elongated, rather irregular, granulated with sandy particles, and terminated at the base by a convex disc, which is perforated by small pores, elongated into tubes round the edge, presenting the appearance of the spout of a watering pot, whence the name is derived. Loc. New Holland, Java, New Zealand, Red Sea. Fig. 44. Aspergillum Vaginiferum.

ASSIMIN’EA. Leach. Fam. Turbinacea, Lam. Descr. Inclin- ing to oval, light, thin, covered with a horny epidermis, spire produced into an acute pyramid; whorls slightly angulated in the centre, rounded beneath; aperture elliptical, slightly modi- fied by the last whorl; inner lip planed; outer lip thin. Found in brackish water; one species may be procured abundantly on the muddy shores of the Thames, in Kent. Without comparing the animals, it is difficult to distinguish this genus from some species of Littorina. Fig. 363.* A. Grayana.

ASTACO'LUS. Montf. Microsopic. Cristezttari Crepidula. Lam. c


ASTARTE. Sow. (Name of a Sidonian goddess, Ashtaroth in scripture.) Fam. Nymphacea, Lam.’ Gen. Crassina, Lam. Descr. Suborbicular, equivalve, inequilateral, thick, compress- ed; h’nge with two solid diverging teeth in the right valve, one tooth and a slight posterior elevation in the left; muscular im- pressions, two in each valve, uniform, united by a simple palleal impression; ligament external. Obs. This genus differs from Venus, Cytherzea, &c. in not having a posterior sinus in the impression of the mantle. The hinge also differs in having but two cardinal teeth. Astarte differs from Crassatella, in having an external ligament. Nearly all the species known are British. The fossils occur in Crag, Lower Oolite, &c. Fig. 110. A. Danmoniensis.

ASTROLE’PAS. Klein. Coronuxa Testudinaria, Auct. Chelon- obia, Leach, fig. 15.

ATLANTA. Lesueur. Fam. Pteropoda, Lam. and Bl. Deser. Spiral convolute, transparent, fragile, compressed; with a broad fimbriated dorsal keel, and a narrow aperture. This shell, which is called, “‘corne d’ammon vivant,”’ is found in the Atlantic. The smal] Pteropod, figured in Sowerby’s genera as Limacina, belongs to this genus. Atlanta Helicialis, fig. 220.

ATRYPA. Min. Con. Spirirer, Sow. Fig. 203. A. Reticulata.

ATTACHED. Shells are attached to marine substances in various ways; sometimes by a byssus, or bunch of silky fibres, passing through an opening between the valves, or a perforation in the shell, asin Mytilus and Orbicula; sometimes by a portion of the shell itself, asin Chama, Spondylus, Serpula, &c. and sometimes by a fleshy tendinous process called a pedicle, as in all the Pedun- culated Cirripedes,’”’ Lam.

A’TYS. Montf. Generic name for those species of Buuua, de- scribed “as convolute, with the last whorl covering the rest and hiding the spire, the aperture rounded at both ends.’’ Bulla Naucum, Auct. fig. 250.

AURICULA. Lam. (Dim, from Awris, an ear.) Fam. Auri- culacea, Bl. Colimacea, Lam. Deser. Oval or oblong, cylin- drical or conical, solid; aperture long, narrow, generally straight- ened in the centre, rounded at the base, with two or three strong folds on the inner lip, and the outer lip thickened, reflected or denticulated ; spire short, obtuse. Epidermis horny, brown. Obs. This description includes the A. Coniformis fig. 298, and seve- ral other conical species, with narrow apertures, which formed the genus Melampus, Mont. and Conovolus, Lam. and excludes the A. Dombeyana, Lam. fig. 300, and several similar species, which being more rotund, having thin outer lips, and but one fold on the columella, are described under the generic name Cxinina by Gray It appears rather doubtful whether the Auricule are marine or fluviatile, but the animals appear to be amphibious.


The Auricule formed part of the genus Voluta of Linnzeus. Fig. 297. A. Jude, fig. 298. A. Coniformis.

AURI'CULATED. Some bivalve shells, such as Pecten, fig. 171, 172, have a flat, broad, somewhat triangular, process on one or both sides of the umbones, called an auricle or little ear. If on one side only, they are said to be wni-auriculated ; if

- on both, they are said to be bi-awriculated.

AURICULA’CEA. BI. The second family of the order Pul- mobranchiata, thus described: “Shell thick, solid; aperture more or less oval, always large, rounded anteriorly, and con- tracted by teeth or folds on the columella. This family con- tains the genera Pedipes, Auricula, Pyramidella.

AURIFERA. BIL Orion, Auct.

AU’RIFORM. (From Auris, an ear; forma, shape.) Ez. Halio- tes, fig. 338.

AURISCAL’PIUM. Megerle. Anarttina, Lam.

AVYCULA. Lam. (From avis, a bird.) Fam. Malleacea, Lam. Margaritacea, Bl. Descr. Inequivalve, inequilateral, folia- ceous, subquadrate, oblique, pearly; hinge rectilinear, drawn out into auricular appendages, with a small indistinct tooth in each valve, an elongated, marginal ligamentiferous area, widened near the centre. One circular, subcentral, muscular impression in each valve, with a series of smaller ones in a line towards the umbones. Obs. The Meleagrinee of Lam. Margaritiferee, Schum. which are included in this description, consist of the more rounded species, which do not present that elegant oblique form, from which the genus Avicula receives itsname. A. Hirundo, fig. 163. A. Margaritifera, fig. 164. From the latter are obtained oriental pearls. Fossil species occur in the London clay, &c.

AXINUS. Sow. Descr. Equivalve, transverse; posterior side very short, rounded, with a long ligament, placed in a furrow, extending along the whole edge; anterior side produced, angu- lated, truncated, with a flattish lunette near the beaks. Mr. Sowerby, who describes this shell in the Mineral Conchology, does not consider his genus as established, not having seen the hinge.

AX‘S. The imaginary line, around which the whorls of a spiral shell revolve; the extremities of the axis are pointed out in fig. 379. a.a. See CoLuMELLA.”’

AZE'CA. Leach. Fam. Colimacea, Lam. A small pupiform shell, thus described by Fleming : Aperture of the shell oblique, narrow retrally.”” A. Tridens. (Turbo Tridens, Mont. Test. Brit. 338. t. xi. fig. 2.) Fig. 290.

AZE’MUS. Ranz. Leach.

BA‘CULITES. Lam. Fam. Orthocerata, Bl. Ammonacea, Lam. Deser. Straight conical, tubular, laterally compressed, chambers divided by very sinuous, lobed septa, the last elongated ; aper-


ture elliptical; siphon dorsal. Obs. This genus differs from Orthoceras in the same manner that Ammonites differs from Nautilus, having its septa exceedingly lobated and sinuous. A Baculite might be described as a straight Ammonite. Known only fossil, in the limestone of Meestricht and Valognes. Fig. 484, B. Faujasii.

BA’LANUS. Lam. (An acorn, Gland de Mer, fr.) Order, Sessile Cirripedes, Lam. Fam. Balanidea, Bl. Descr. Shell composed of six valves, locked into each other, side by side, in a conical circle, closed at the base by a flat, cylindrical, or cup-shaped valve, by which it is generally attached, and at the apex bya conical operculum, consisting of four valves, in anterior and posterior pairs. Each valve of the shell is divided into a rough triangular portion, pointed towards the apex, and a flat area on each side. Obs. This description includes the AcastTa of Leach. Bauanus is the only genus of Sessile Cirripedes, the shells of which consist of six principal valves, except Coro- nula, the shells in which have no shelly base, are flatter, and have the valves of the operculum placed horizontally. The Balani are common in all seas, adhering to rocks, corallines, ship bot- toms, and to each other. The fossil species are found in the newest ‘strata, at Bordeaux, Paris, &c. Fig. 25. B. Tintinabu- lum. 26, Acasta Montagui. 27, Balanus galeatus.

BALAN'IDEA. Bl. The second family of the class Nemato- poda, Bl. Sessile Cirripedes, Lam.

BA’LEA. Gray. Colimacea, Lam. Deser. Spiral, turrited, con- centrically striated, sinistral, and covered with a thin brown epidermis; spire composed of numerous whorls, gradually in- creasing in size; aperture small, subquadrate; peritreme entire, slightly thickened, with a very slight fold on the columella, axis perforated. Obs. A genus of small land shells, found in moss at the root of trees in Britain, not very nearly resembling any other land shells, except Clausilia, of which they want the clau- sium. They have been placed in Helix by Ferussac, and in Pupa by Draparnaud. B. Fragilis, fig.296. Hela perversa, Fer. Pupa perversa, Drap.

BAR’NACLES. Pernre.asmis, Avct. Called Anatifa by Lin- neeus and Lamarck, from the ancient notion that they were the eggs or embryos of the Barnacle Duck. See Anatifera.

BASE. In all shells that are attached to marine substances, the base is that part of the shell which forms the point of attach- ment. Hx. The attached valve of Spondylus; the basal plate of Balanus; the lower part of the pedicle of Pentelasmis; in unattached bivalves, the margin opposite the umbones, where the part analagous to the foot of the animal protrudes; in spiral univalves, the aperture, which rests on the back of the animal when walking. Some authors have used the term base as simply


opposed to apex, and would apply it to the anterior of the aperture.

BA’TOLITES. Montf. Hrppurires, Auct.

BELEMNITES. <Auct. (Bedenvov, belemnon,a dart or arrow.) Fam. Orthocerata, Bl. and Lam. JDescr. Straight, conical, consisting of two parts; external portion forming a thick, solid shield, with a cavity at the base, to admit the internal portion or nucleus, which is more mathematically conical, and is divided into chambers, by smooth, simple septa, perforated by a lateral siphon. Obs. These singular fossils have long